However, this approach, which because of its intrinsic lack of transparency is an integral part of Western China-Threat ideas, has gradually given way to the People’s Republic in favor of a more active and altogether very pragmatic foreign policy. In its foreign February 2019 Calendar Word policy, China is formally following the traditional guideline of the 1954 proclaimed Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence: Respect for Sovereignty and Territorial Mutual Non-Aggression Mutual Non-Intervention in Internal AffairsEqual Rights and Mutual Benefit Coexistence Despite Different Systems.
February 2019 Calendar Word
In particular, they have mutual non-interference in internal affairs to the subject nd take account of China’s high regard for national sovereignty. In practice, China is willing to work with any partner, irrespective of its ideological, political, religious, or otherwise ideological orientation. The only non-negotiable condition is the “one-China principle” claimed by the People’s Republic, according to which Tibet and Xinjiang belong to the Chinese state as well as de facto independent Taiwan.
But unlike the US, China does not pursue a political mission no state adopting its political principles. Beijing, for example, is gaining political advantages in many developing countries vis-à-vis the Western world of states, which often associate development cooperation with demands for the good governance of their partners. In doing so, China generally prefers bilateral forms of cooperation in order to effectively exploit its economic and political superiority.
In turn, it relies on selective multilateralism vis-à-vis major powers or groups of states, such as ASEAN or the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) formed with Russia and four Central Asian states. The UN is very important to China’s foreign policy in that China is on an equal footing with the United States.
At the same time, the People’s Republic can distinguish itself there as a reliable major power and underline its commitment to world peace by sending around 2,200 peacekeepers in ten UN peacekeeping missions. However, China remains a rather cautious player in the field of international security policy. The high esteem of state sovereignty makes it difficult for Beijing to vote in the Security Council for sanctions or even the use of force to oppose civil wars or serious human rights violations.
However, this attitude increasingly conflicts with China’s self-image of a responsible power. In cases such as Sudan, North Korea, Iran or Libya, China has always co-opted, after having done so often with Russia to mitigate it. China has not yet become an active player in international security policy; the political leadership is still looking for ways to reconcile the traditional principles of non-interference with the new demands of a global regulatory power.
Limited military powerAs the toughest instrument of a state to enforce its political interests, the military is commonly considered. With more than two million soldiers, the People’s Republic has the world’s largest armed forces, whose ever-increasing budget February 2019 Calendar Word (around $ 132 billion in 2014) and extensive modernization program have been the subject of intense international discussion for several years. According to its White Papers published for almost 20 years, Chinese security policy is strictly defensive. However, projects such as the aircraft carrier program.